Socrates began to engage in such discussions with his fellow Athenians after his friend from youth, Chaerephon, visited the Oracle of Delphi, which asserted that no man in Greece was wiser than S… This technique is mostly used for the decisions relating to demand forecast, project market trends, identify future problems, predict the future state of finance, production etc. The advantages of the NGT include the integration of both group creative and individual creativity and the equal participation by all members in group decision making. Brainstorming is a group decision making process in which negative feedback on any suggested alternative by any group member is forbidden until all members have presented alternatives that they perceive as valuable.. But when such a situation arises, it is an excellent method. Dialectic Decision methods – Some face-to-face decision-making groups converge too quickly on one alternative while overlooking others. As controlled scientific experiments have shown that Delphi estimates are no better than those of other consensus-oriented methods (Woudenberg 1991), it must be the … In this technique, members of the group spend five to 10 minutes writing their ideas without discussion. The dialectical inquiry ensures that decision-makers consider all alternatives and opposing views in decision-making. It will also help the leader to understand one group’s aggressiveness to another. Summarize by making sure that everybody knows what has been discussed and agreed. In order to reduce many of the problems inherent in traditional interacting group on account of ‘groupthink’ and ‘groupshift’, brainstorming, nominal group, and Delphi techniques have been proposed. Moreover, group decisions require transmitting of message between members, and the effectiveness of this communication process will signifi­cantly impact the quality of group decisions. A chairperson cannot afford to overlook ‘group prejudice’. After all the ideas have been recorded, encourage each group to discuss the ideas comparing, clarifying, and defending their statements. The results so obtained are then tabulated and used in developing a revised questionnaire. (iv) On whatever is spoken by a member, the manager must be in a position to give expert comments. The Delphi process is a survey technique for decision making among isolated, anonymous re- spondents. Identify a problem for discussion. (iii) The other group members can ask him questions but there is no irrelevant discussion or cross talk. It may happen that due to lack of interaction among members they are not able to reconcile their diverse views and unanimity is not obtained. The technique can also be adapted for use in face-to-face meetings, and is then called mini-Delphi or Estimate … (v) Have a faithful record of the deliberations and decisions arrived at. Decision … Naturally, the responsibility solely lies with the manager. The type of problem in such a situation should be such that it results in a Yes-No solution. We communicate information, and information is used in making of decisions. The method takes its name from the ancient Greek city that housed the “oracle.” There, a priest-ess (called the “Pythia”) purportedly communicated directly with the gods and would answer questions (deBoer & Hale, 2002). The functioning of this technique is as explained below: (i) In this technique, the decision making group of experts is seated around a circle with a single chair in the center of the circle. It is used to compare alternatives where the optimum solution cannot be conveniently reduced to monetary terms. Originally, the Delphi Technique was aimed at predicting the impact of technology … It can be formal and informal. Traditionally we have been used to the face-to-face interacting group meetings. One of the more obvious applications of communication concepts is in the area of group decision making. Prohibited Content 3. The ideas so generated by the task sub-groups are developed and narrowed in smaller number of ideas. These differences derive from a lack of control of important group, task, and technique characteristics (such as the relative level of panellist expertise and the nature of feedback … 4. (ii) Then each member presents his idea to the group, either by writing on a flip chart or chalk board. By the sheer social force of the group we develop a sense of belonging, turn to the group for support, take up matters of vital importance with higher authorities or the ‘powers that be’ through the group. There are a lot of ways that will make it easier to make group decisions. For this purpose he has to have clear thinking and very good communication skills. The group decision making technique known as ‘brainstorming’ was developed in 1939 by an American advertising agency. It was incorporated to reduce the range of responses and arrive at a consensus. The term ‘command meeting’ is self-explanatory. (d) Diversity and quantity of ideas generated. After voting, the group discusses results and generates more ideas. Plagiarism Prevention 5. It aims to guide group opinion towards a final decision and to answer questions through triangulation of subjective group judgments, ana- lytical techniques and the experience of the researcher. … It is based on the following four basic guidelines: (b) Be creative, freewheeling and imaginative. In this method, all the feedback from the different experts is collected anonymously by the moderator. Each group needs to choose three to five top priority ideas. Brainstorming Techniques for Call Centers, The Advantages of Qualitative Forecasting, Advertising Evaluation Techniques for a Focus Group, A Comparative Analysis of Formal Vs. In this technique a small group of persons is stimulated to creative thinking. In a command meeting, it is for the manager to decide where and when the meeting should take place, and what procedure is to be followed. Conferences/colloquiums/conventions, seminars and workshops are such activities that the organizations are now more and more resorting to. Command Meetings. All members get equal opportunity for participation. The disadvantage of the NGT is reported that the members do not have the opportunity to benefit from cross fertilization of ideas. The Delphi technique makes demands on our intelligence to design questionnaires and to give carefully thought out answers/responses to them. A standing committee is a permanent committee empowered and entrusted to take management decisions. In contrast, Delphi is useful in complex situations where there is … The Delphi Technique and consensus building are both founded in the same principle - the Hegelian dialectic of thesis, antithesis, and synthesis, with synthesis becoming the new thesis. Committees and Committee Meetings 15. Content Guidelines 2. It is a technique for choosing from among alternatives to identify a preferred choice when objectives are less specific. Helping people temporarily suspend judgment. ‘Groupshift’, on the other hand, is a phenomenon in which group members tend to exaggerate the initial position they held. Several techniques of operations research have been developed e.g. (iv) After the exhaustive discussion, the groups switch sides and try to find weaknesses in their own original viewpoints. Now that almost all business is going global, ability to communicate in more than one language is becoming increasingly important. Unlike the NGT, the Delphi technique involves creating a series of open-ended questions for group members. Using the information acquired in preparing to make the decision. 5, pp. Nominal Group Technique 3. It is infact, an idea generation process that encourages all alternative approaches, and withholds criticism. Delphi allows for decision making when team members are not physically in the same location. ii. Generally Command meetings (a meeting between boss and subordinates) are highly controlled where the purpose of meeting (in fact) is conveying of message from the boss to subordinate rather than seeking solution by participation. Ideas are written on a flip chart, and individuals try to add to the ideas. No evaluation of ideas is done during discussions to encourage freewheeling. Each of them could be useful in different situations. A clear understanding of the group values will provide a basis for predicting or foreseeing the programmes or actions that the group is likely to support. Brainstorming sessions last from ten minutes to one hour and do not require much preparation. 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