2002 - Examining time trends in the Oldowan technology at Beds I and II, Olduvai Gorge. 15) have been distinguished. they do not seem to be related to percussion but with knapping processes. As mentioned before, Schick and Toth (1994) considered that they are casual shapes derived from their use as hammerstones. At Olduvai, there are tools in different stages of use that allow reconstructing technical gestures embodied in the shaping of spheroid morphologies. This study led to the rise of 3D cell culture over monolayer culture techniques, and spheroids became a very popular tool for a range of applications, ... and the range of specialized culture equipment and synthetic coatings now available has made spheroid … As stated above, genuine lava polyhedrons are linked to stone tool knapping and generally have no battering traces. This set consists of the following tools: MS-201 Oldowan Spheroid Tool MS-202 Oldowan Bifacial Chopper MS-203 Oldowan Bifacial Chopper MS-204 Oldowan Hand Axe MS-205 Acheulean Cleaver MS-206 Acheulean Hand Axe. A second type of by-products encompasses fragments detached from plane C of the anvil. According to Alimen (1963), negatives produced during the percussion process on anvils can be differentiated from those made by flaking, and we believe it is possible to do so in the Olduvai case. 17), this is a common pattern among all lithic categories in Bed II, and is therefore not exclusive to the items involved in percussion activities (i.e. Journal of Human Evolution, 15, p. 673-690. Journal of Human Evolution, 43, p. 291-321. (Eds.) 55The production of involuntary scars (negatives) on block surfaces obviously implies fragments (positives) being detached from the anvils. Thus, our conclusions based on a review of technological categories comes to support Jones (1994)’s statistically- based proposal about the mismatch between polyhedrons and subspheroids/ spheroids at Olduvai; quartz subspheroids and spheroids belong to a sequence different from that of the polyhedrons. Quantitative analyses do not help to distinguish tool types, since hammerstones with fracture angles were made on the same blanks as classic hammerstones, and therefore there are no size or raw material variations. It has been proposed that the hammerstone is the key piece to distinguish between the way humans and other animals use tools, since only the former consider the hammerstone as an intermediary tool used to obtain another artefact (the flake), whilst in ethologic contexts, the hammerstone is used directly for individual tasks –to break a nut, an egg, etc. In Y. Coppens, F. C. Howell, G. L. Isaac et R. E. F. Leakey (Eds. Florence: Istituto Italiano di Preistoria e Protostoria. 1996), and the analysis of Olduvai collections (Bunn 1982, 1986, 1989; Blumenschine 1995; Shipman 1989), have focused on marks produced on the bones by the tools, but not on the modifications on the stone tools during their use. Figure 7 - A) Comparison between a classic hammerstone (left), which shows a homogeneous pitted surface, and a hammerstone with fracture angles (right), showing a battered dihedral ridge. 31Worked stones with spheroid shapes have been widely discussed in the Early Stone Age literature. Regular knapping activities require the use of a hammer (be it hard or soft, direct or indirect, etc) that hits another item in order to modify its morphology and / or obtain a product. Although platform B does not receive direct blows, it also experiences écaillés and fractures due to the bipolar force transmitted to the block and its contact with the ground. Naturally, you may find many other uses for these display bases. Tant les types de percussion reconnus à Olduvai que les caractéristiques principales des enclumes, des percuteurs et des produits obtenus ont été systématisés. CAPALDO S. D., BLUMENSCHINE R. J. Chavaillon (1979) differentiates two main groups; one is composed by battered cobbles and hammerstones, and another by fractured cobbles. tools with three or more working edges, usually intersecting”), spheroids (“. These were characterised as lacking artificial shaping but showing some evidence of utilisation, such as chipping, blunting of the edges, smashing and battering. Chavaillon & Chavaillon 1981; Jones 1994; Toth 2001; Kleindienst & Keller 1976). There is a maximum size ranging between 70-80 mm (fig. Unpublished Ph.D. MADRIGAL T. C., BLUMENSCHINE R. J. There is a maximum size ranging between 70-80 mm (fig. 26The identification of hammerstones with battered dihedral angles leads to discuss about the meaning and validity of the term chopper, as defined by Mary Leakey. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, p. 600-604. Furthermore, the majority of these positives do not have a butt, bulb, or any other attribute that could indicate the direction of the force applied to obtain the so-called flake. 66Percentages of tool types throughout the Beds I and II sequence show interesting patterns. Journal of Archaeological Science, 27, p. 739-741. 12). 1997). In K. W. Butzer et G. L. Isaac (Eds. However, we have identified a large number of items that -although they present the battering typical of active percussion activities- actually are not the classic hammerstones used in knapping processes. Thus, the fact that battering marks appear on the ridges (fig. Thus, polyhedrons, spheroids and subspheroids would be different stages of the same chaîne opératoire, in which these pieces are not by-products of débitage and battering processes, but the consequence of an intentional façonnage (Texier & Roche 1995-p. 35). WILLOUGHBY P. R. 1987 - Spheroids and Batterd Stones in the African Early Stone Age. Tervuren, Belgie Annalen, Musée Royal de l’Afrique Centrale, p. 81-108. This selection is probably related to the greater proximity of streams transporting lava cobbles, and to the natural shape of the blanks, since most of the lavas show rounded fluvial forms that facilitate their use as knapping hammerstones. Oxford : Oxford University Press. Here, scars from anvils do not respond to conchoidal fracture; instead they show orthogonal morphologies and obtuse angles. Journal of Human Evolution, 29, p. 21-51. A technological analysis of non-flaked stone tools in Olduvai Beds I & II. 64After describing above the technological and morphological features of percussive tools, in this section a quantitative assessment of percussion items will be presented, with a view to evaluating the relevance of percussion processes on each assemblage. 18b), particularly those with tabular shapes; these forms facilitate stability of blocks on the ground, and could be an indicator of raw material selectivity, as documented in the chert and basalt anvils in ´Ubeidiya, chosen by their flat platforms (Bar-Yosef & Goren-Inbar 1993). She believes that spheroids were linked to pounding activities, and that instead of being an intentional end product, it is more likely that tools acquired a spherical form through their use as hammers (Willoughby 1987). 3In the context of this table ronde “Entre le marteau et l´enclume,” and in order to describe technological strategies different from the classic direct hard-hammer percussion, we focus on the utilised materials (Leakey 1971) or pounded pieces (Isaac et al. The Oldowan tools were probably manufactured by … This dichotomy can be established on the basis of the sedimentary origin of quartz blanks. Lithic Technology, 25, p. 81-100. On the other hand, the utilized materials group encompassed all the items that presented hominin modifications not necessarily related to knapping, but to the direct use of natural rocks. 4) and all items are very similar in their mass, ranging between 350-380 grs in FLK Zinj, FC West and FLK North, and 410-450 grs in TK and DK. Figure 5 - Example of a typical hammerstone with fracture angles from TK Upper Floor. 1b – or another intermediate piece between the transmitter and the receptor –fig. Jones (1994) offers an intermediate position; in spite of considering that the swiftest manner to obtain spheroid forms is by using pieces as hammerstones, he considers it must have been a deliberate option by the worker, in an attempt to produce round shapes suitable for particular purposes. to enable stone tool making • Supported by recent discovery of bone digging tools • But, digging sticks could have been made by Homo, whose ... • Was the fossil hand bone Au. Focusing on more specific issues, it seems that Olduvai hominids used lavas and quartzes simultaneously as raw materials for their percussion activities. CHAVAILLON J., CHAVAILLON N. 1976 - Le Paléolithique ancien en Ethiopie. 49Long ago, Desmond Clark (1955) pointed out that the spheroid phenomenon is found all across Africa and ranges over an extended period of time, which starts at the Olduvai sites and continues throughout the Acheulean and the Middle Stone Age. Angles and irregularities on the percussion surface suggest that these items could not have been used as lithic knapping hammerstones: there are no even areas on their surfaces which, upon coming into contact with the hammered item, could transmit the force uniformly in order to generate a conchoidal fracture (fig. The description of Olduvai anvils Leakey made (1971-p. During the percussion process (see fig. 3). Figure 22b denotes an identical co-variation in the mean size of classic hammerstones and hammerstones with fracture angles. Nonetheless, the aim of categorizing types of percussion fragments is to underline their morphological variability and to stress the classificatory problems, which could lead to catalogue by-products generated spontaneously from the anvils as flakes and flake fragments (Leakey 1971). We thank Vincent Mourre and Marc Jarry for inviting us to the Table-Ronde “Entre le marteau et l´enclume”. A wheel shape with a flat end and rounded edges, the Oblate Spheroid carbide burr is to be used for cutting in, removal of material, carving and defining in many hard substances such as metals, stone, ceramic, porcelain, reinforced plastics and hard wood. 20), at FLK North II (Deinotherium and Sandy Conglomerate Levels) -where spheroids are the most abundant category (47.5%) - anvils are scarce (9.1%). BLUMENSCHINE R. J. In M. D. Leakey et D. A. Roe (Eds. CLARK J. D., KLEINDIENST M. R. 1974 - The Stone Age cultural sequence: terminology, typology, and raw material. They conclude spheroids are not predetermined pieces, but exhausted cores that later on were used as battering objects (Sahnouni et al. Berkeley: University of California. HomeIssuesNuméro spécialA technological analysis of non-f... Dans cette contribution, les activités de percussion des sites des Beds I et II d´Olduvai sont réexaminées à partir de l’étude des assemblages recueillis par Mary Leakey dans les années 1960. Modelli e tecnologie per capire la Preistoria. BUNN H. T. 1982 - Meat-Eating and Human Evolution: Studies on the Diet and Subsistence Patterns of Plio-Pleistocene Hominids in East Africa. 36Despite the opposing viewpoints between those considering polyhedrons, spheroids, etc as mere hammerstones (Schick and Toth 1994; Willoughby 1987; Sahnouni et al. An initial step saw a move away from biochemical assays using purified drug target, in favor of a cell-based approach which utilized over-expression of drug target in common host cell lines, such as CHO and HEK-293. Those we now classify as spheroids would not be predetermined forms but instead objects unintentionally rounded during their use as hammerstones. Eventually, irregular edges are caused by pounding, and ridges finally become rounded again given the intensity of battering. In: G. L. Isaac et E. R. McCown (Eds. Natural selection results in the increased reproductive capacities of organisms that are best suited for the conditions in which they are living. Thus, if the unifacial or bifacial objects with partial edges and simple angles from Olduvai had been used for chopping activities, the damage on their ridges (pitting, abrasion, step fractures, etc) would be perfectly visible. Journal of Anthropological Research, 47, p. 153-176. Louis Leakey thought they might have been tied together in threes, like a "bolo," and thrown around the legs of prey. ), Olduvai Gorge. As aforementioned, Leakey (1971) referred to shaped anvils in the Developed Oldowan, in which the flat upper and lower surfaces of blocks would be accompanied by flaking of the circumference. This shows the multiple meanings of categories created by archaeologists and, at the same time, informs on the technological flexibility of the chaînes opératoires we are analysing. LEAKEY M. D. 1975 - Cultural Patterns in the Olduvai Sequence. However, both experimental studies on the hammer-on-anvil technique (Bunn 1989; Capaldo & Blumenschine 1994; Blumenschine & Selvaggio 1991; Blumenschine et al. Journal of Human Evolution 48, p. 435-472. 2002) and, even though horizontal planes (platforms A and B) present signs of battering, impacts are not concentrated on the central part but on the edges. 58A second type of by-products encompasses fragments detached from plane C of the anvil. 2004 - Studies on the Early Paleolithic site of Melka Kunture, Ethiopia. Bulletin de la Societé Préhistorique Française, 76, p. 230-233. 6). Book Description: ‘Stone Tools in the Ancient Near East and Egypt: Ground stone tools, rock-cut installations and stone vessels from Prehistory to Late Antiquity’ is about groundstone tools, stone … 1987), Sterkfontein (Kuman 1998) and Omo (Merrick 1976; Chavaillon 1976), whilst the use of anvils for the flaking of large blanks is widely known in the Saharan (i.e. 44The process involved in the production of spheroid shapes from tabular quartz blanks is different. 61An alternative is that Olduvai passive hammers were part of the anvil-chipping technique, which consists on the striking of a core held in both hands against a anvil on the ground (see i.e. However, after the formal definition of choppers (e.g. 5). Therefore, some of the objects classified originally as spheroid artefacts are, in fact, naturally rounded pieces. Considering Willoughby’s proposal (1987) on the positive correlation in the representation of spheroids and anvils in the Olduvai sequence, Texier and Roche (1995) make an observation that echoes Clark’s (1955) conclusions; to control the effectiveness of percussion when shaping spheroids, the best option is to work the polyhedron on a hard surface: thus, percussion becomes bipolar due to the effect of the active hammerstone and the anvil. PNAS, 99, p. 2455-2460. A. Il est ainsi possible d´évaluer l´importance des activités de percussion par rapport aux opérations de taille dans certains assemblages, ce qui fournit des informations significatives concernant la fonction des sites en question. stone balls, smoothly rounded over the whole exterior . This would explain some of the mismatches with Leakey’s (1971) classification, who included in the, category of flaked objects items that we believe do not correspond to débitage or façonnage processes, but instead to percussion activities (fig. In order to produce a conchoidal fracture on the core, the force must be transmitted from the hammerstone uniformly; even distribution of force does not occur when hammerstones are fractured, so when this happens, the area used for knapping is rotated or the piece is discarded. All Bone Clones, Sawyer & Maley Neanderthal Reconstruction, MS-201-SET Set of 6 Fossil Hominid Tools from East Africa, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Association of Applied Paleontological Sciences. By some authors ( i.e simultaneously as raw materials are lavas ( mainly basalts, trachytes and phonolytes ) in! There are thick and irregular positives ( group 2.2 and the Clactonian a! 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