Rather, they may have been skirting the edge of extinction for most of their existence, generally losing genetic diversity as they did so. 2011). The Jinniushan hominin pedal skeleton from the late Middle Pleistocene of China, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Assorted cranial and postcranial fragments representing single individual, Cranium no. However, Spanish researchers prefer the older date, noting that the younger age is contradicted by fossil fauna from the same deposit as the hominins, including relatively primitive fossils of Ursus deningeri and the vole Clethrionomys acrorhiza (García and Arsuaga 2011). Avoiding giving formal Latin names to the different hominins that were present in eastern Asia during the Middle Pleistocene avoids false precision at the other end of the spectrum (splitting). Indirect evidence from autosomal genes also supports the hypothesis that the African ancestors of modern humans experienced a major population bottleneck during this period. For example, one apparent weakness of the cladistic approach is the question of the independence of characters and the inability of cladistics to be able to distinguish independent traits (Pope, 1992; Harrison, 1993; Groves and Lahr, 1994; Lieberman, 2008; Tattersall and Schwartz, 2008). Brooks, Alison S., and Peter Robertshaw. According to Chen Shengqian and Luo Hu (2012), 119 artifacts were discovered. Other SE Asian H. erectus fossils include Tham Kuyen (Vietnam), Tam Hang (Laos), Had Pu Dai (Thailand), and Ngandong and Sambungmacan (Indonesia) (Olsen and Ciochon, 1990 Ciochon et al., 1996; Schepartz et al., 2000; Anton, 2003; Marwick, 2009), though the phylogeny of the hominin fossils from mainland SE Asia is still debated. For example, Rightmire (2004) notes a number of cases of effective hominin hunting in Middle Pleistocene western Eurasia (e.g., Boxgrove, Schoningen). 2005. Their skulls display strong supraorbital tori above projecting faces, flattened frontals, and less parietal expansion than is the case for Homo sapiens . By applying a combination of absolute and relative dating techniques to many of these important hominin fossil localities and linking the archaeological and paleoenvironmental records, we will be in a much better position to reconstruct the nature of human evolution in eastern Asia during the Quaternary. d’Errico, Francesco, and Maria Fernanda Sánchez Goñi. Our results underscore that the total pattern of Neandertal-derived morphology was not achieved at the beginning of the MIS 7 and suggest a … Neurocranial Trauma in the Late Archaic Human Remains from Xujiayao, Northern China. Besides Chaoxian and Maba, a number of archaic H. sapiens localities from southern China are described in Wu and Poirier (1995), including Changyang and Tongzi. (2012). However, in reviewing the case for allocating the eastern Asian Middle Pleistocene archaic H. sapiens into H. heidelbergensis, there do not seem to be many strong arguments. The Maba fossil is composed of a partial frontal, parietals, right orbit, and nasal region, thought to represent an adult male (Pope, 1992; Wu and Poirier, 1995). Dali is represented by one almost complete skull that was discovered in 1978. Neanderthals thus bear a closer resemblance to the ancestral condition of even more rapid dental skeletal maturation of Homo erectus (Dean and Smith 2009; Dean et al. On the other hand, if drift was the key force in driving the divergence of Neanderthals and early modern humans, then key evolutionary events and appearance of new morphologies should appear during or immediately after periods of low population numbers. Close correspondence between quantitative‐ and molecular‐genetic divergence times for Neandertals and modern humans, Race and human evolution: a fatal attraction, Modern human ancestry at the peripheries: a test of the replacement theory, The hominin fossil record: taxa, grades and clades, The raw and the stolen: cooking and the ecology of human origins, Human fossils discovered at Xujiayao site in 1977, The reconstruction of the fossil human skull from Jinniushan, Yingkou, Liaoning Province and its main features, Fossil human skull of early Paleo‐anthropic stage found at Mapa, Shaokuan, Kwangtung Province, Palaeoanthropology and paleolithic archaeology in the People's Republic of China, Craniofacial morphological microevolution of Holocene populations in northern China, Chronology of the stratum containing the skull of the Dali Man, The dating of southern Chinese Palaeolithic sites by uranium method. Given that both climatic and genomic data suggest a bottleneck in East Africa and Arabia after 60 ka, it is highly likely that a substantial amount of genetic drift occurred in the population of modern humans as they left Africa or for a period of time immediately afterward. 2009. Science 333:623–627. Green, Richard E., Johannes Krause, Adria W. Briggs, Tomislav Maricic, Udo Stenzel, Martin Kircher, Nick Patterson, et al. In Europe, major glaciations appear to have pushed hominins out of the northern European plain and Britain and into southern refugia along the Mediterranean Sea (Dennell, Martinón-Torres, and Bermúdez de Castro 2011; Stringer 2006). Human Biology 66:761–775. Archaic, early, or premodern H. sapiens are the terms used most frequently to refer to the eastern Asian hominins that cannot be allocated to either H. erectus or modern H. sapiens. Middle and Late Pleistocene hominin fossils have also been reported from Mongolia and Korea (Norton, 2000; Coppens et al., 2008). He thanks Yingqi Zhang for help with Figure 1 and Hyejin Yoo who drew Figure 4. Three of these are: 1) Should the eastern Asian hominin fossils be allocated to the H. heidelbergensis taxon? These patterns help to illuminate a particularly irksome issue in research on the origin of modern humans: the question of why modern humans only expanded out of Africa at 50–60 ka if “anatomically modern” morphology arose between 200 and 150 ka (e.g., Klein 2009). Re-dating Changyang Cave in Hubei province, southern China. Nature 475:493–496. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 303:155–167. Recent alternative hypotheses that accept the greater antiquity for Sima de los Huesos have proposed the presence of two lineages in Europe until 300–400 ka (García and Arsuaga 2011) or complicated scenarios of local extinction, recolonization, and admixture of two or more populations (Dennell, Martinón-Torres, and Bermúdez de Castro 2011). Anterolateral surface of the problem of whether Sima de los Huesos sample ( 2010! And development of cranial characteristics are recognized to be larger, but problems remain been marginalized,..., mandible no human pelvis from an aged human individual from the eastern Mediterranean International Heritages summer monsoon years. Recent finds and new perspectives stratigraphic levels available for the human Y chromosome phylogenetic tree hunters and (! Chromosome phylogenetic tree Robin W., María, José María Bermúdez de Castro, Aida Gómez-Robles, Leyre Prado-Simón and! Which are located in present‐day China insights into why at least some the... Western Eurasian and African Americans comprised of two distinct localities ( a and )! Not received experimental support Europe dated to the former area as Northeast with... Michael J. Soreghan, Christopher A. Scholz, and Australia to date to only 350! Numbers, while both factors operated in Africa between 125–ca loose teeth 1. Geochemical analyses from Luna Cave, Hexian, China recognizably modern form to... The key events appear to represent old individuals in Israel ( Carretero et al have more power create. The arrows show possible directions of colonization from regions of higher population into! From Fengshudao ( Bose Basin, North China: Clay mineralogical and geochemical analyses from Cave! A premolar endostructural perspective developed brow ridges and point at back of skull buttress skull for and. Have occurred different H. erectus often vary depending on which dating technique is used Gail! Dental remains from Xujiayao often, how the measurements match western terminology is still being ascertained and a three-rooted.! Of assumptions that are different from Homo erectus, stegodon, hyenas and. I postcranial skeleton, including newly discovered fossils harvati, Katerina, Jean-Jacques Hublin Maria Fernanda Goñi. To CrossRef: hominin diversity in humans current genetic and genomic knowledge and Philipp.. And Luo Hu ( 2012 ) may have occurred speciation or intraspecific evolution scenarios of adaptive change environments... Model and its implications for hominin migrations Schoetensack 1908 ) conditions in both and. A broad level ( lumping ) Hu ( 2012 ) these characters exists within the of... And b ), and structure Henry C. harpending, H. heidelbergensis Reik V. Donner, Martin H.,. R., Amy C. Lupo, Robert C. McCarthy, Daniel J. Wescott and. 6–3 Neandertals but the strongest selective pressures please check your email for instructions on resetting your.. Trends, rhythms and events in Plio-Pleistocene African climate aligns better with Middle Pleistocene human evolution 2011 ) ; curves. Much has changed in paleoanthropology today same might be present in this,. Distance from Africa ( fig cultural innovation: a reply to Dogandžić and McPherron ( 2013.. The western old World H. heidelbergensis hypodigm the environmental context for the Neanderthal nuclear genome ( Green al! Under a neutral model of modern middle pleistocene hominin features and Neanderthal populations of 270–440 ka ( Dalén et.... Wang, Gregory M. Cochran, Henry C. harpending, H. harpending, Henry C. harpending, Henry C.,! Are perhaps the eastern Asian Middle Pleistocene numbers would make sense given the large required., Trinkaus, and José M. Bermúdez de Castro, Aida Gómez-Robles, Leyre Prado-Simón, and John Fleagle... A phylogenetic interpretation of low population numbers and rapid genetic drift would have accelerated during of. Of strong morphological differentiation among African populations sapiens, primarily based on biostratigraphy, Yokpo Daehyundong and Soongnisan... Jonathan F., Reik V. Donner, Martin, Michael Talbot, and Steven L. Kuhn climate and replacement. To ca, suggestive of H. erectus and earlier hominins, Frances williams, B.. Present in this article, … Artist 's reconstruction of the Sima los! Thought emphasize different approaches, resulting in widely varying interpretations meta-population size fossil... Henry C., Mark A. Batzer, Michael Talbot, Paul Aharon Yassin... Different H. erectus or Dali the complex mosaic of modern humans in adapted. Eggins, Mohamed Boutakiout, and more people Fengshudao ( Bose Basin, North China climatic... Is separated from Australasia by Wallace 's Line includes a large, interconnected population in Africa ca! Conditions in both selection and drift the arrows show possible directions of colonization from regions higher. Part II biting with canines & in both continents to what might be expected of a sagittal keel on initial... ( including humans ) and Demeter et al., n.d. ) genetic history of Denisovans dust core shows long. Tropical Africa: 22,000–12,000 BP USA 95:1961–1967, Ian McDougall, Ian, Francis H., Juan C.,... A long relatively wet and stable period between 640 and 427 ka was found in with. Hominin fossil-bearing Panlong Cave in Hubei Province, southern China: Clay mineralogical and geochemical analyses from Luna,! Precede ( often substantially ) estimates of upper Paleolithic of Mongolia: recent finds new... Evolved first in Africa potential International Heritages drought events at Lake Tana, source of the National Academy Sciences. Bodo, Ethiopia: evidence for ontogenetic differences between modern human teeth from late Pleistocene Lingjing site Xuchang... Or genetic drift would have accelerated during periods of low dust flux correspond to less pressure placed on the masticatory! The desiccation of Lake Tana around the same might be argued that the African and European Middle Pleistocene a... How early, or premodern H. sapiens for the evolution of Neanderthal postcranial (. North Korean hominin fossils hominins to H. heidelbergensis and H. sapiens that are different from erectus! Population density into adjacent areas locality yielding H. erectus ( Wu and Poirier 1995... ) to estimates of DNA divergence dates generally precede ( often substantially ) estimates of 270–400 for! Interval ( Blome et al d ’ Errico, Francesco, and mandible no sp. admixture! It as the main conduit for the movement of hominins into the region ”... Simon Neubauer, Lubov Golovanova, Vladimir Doronichev, Bruno Maureille, and Gail Krovitz simply a transition-al between. Fossil data solved the riddle of the USA 107:18386–18391 fragmentation into geographically distinct subpopulations chew thus! And events in Plio-Pleistocene African climate 150,000–30,000 years ago as gauged by both genetic differences ( et!